Ludwig Wittgenstein - Tractatus-Logico-Philosophicus
The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (Latin for "Logical Philosophical Treatise"), is the only book-length philosophical work published by the German-Austrian born philosopher, Ludwig Wittgenstein, (Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein) in his entire lifetime.
Ludwig Wittgenstein was a German-Austrian born philosopher
I (Kaz Psychic) came across this fabulous metaphysical and philosophical work whilst I was student of the Open University; it was part of a course that I was studying which included Philosophy. I found it to be a very compelling and thought provoking book which was worthy of sharing with others, Ludwig Wittgenstein is my all time favorite philosopher! Hopefully this article and the PDF version of this wonderful book (which is accessible via a link below), will provide you too, with a wonderful and very thought provoking read?!
Ludwig Wittgenstein - author of the Tractatus-Logico-Philosophicus
The "Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus"was an ambitious project - designed to identify the relationship between language and reality as well as to define the limits of science; and is recognized as a significant philosophical work of the twentieth century.
Ludwig Wittgenstein (26th April 1889 - 29th April 1951)worked primarily with logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of language.
From 1929 - 1947, Ludwig Wittgenstein taught at the University of Cambridge
Ludwig Wittgenstein Tractatus Logico-philosphicus
(Click on the image above to read this wonderful book in PDF format)
The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, was just one slim, 75 page book (1921), beside which Ludwig Wittgenstein wrote one article, one book review and one children's dictionary.
His voluminous manuscripts were edited and published posthumously.
In the summer of 1918 Wittgenstein took military leave and went to stay in one of his family's Vienna summer houses, in Neuwaldegg. It was there that in August 1918, he completed the 'Tractatus', which he submitted with the title "Der Satz" (German: proposition, sentence, phrase, set, but also "leap") to the publishers Jahoda and Siegel.
Wittgenstein's his uncle Paul died on August 13th 1918, then on October 25th 1918, Wittgenstein learned that Jahoda and Siegel had decided not to publish the Tractatus, on October 27th , his brother Kurt killed himself, Kurt was the third of his brothers to have committed suicide. It was around this time he received a letter from David Pinsent's mother to say that Pinsent (a literary collaborator of Wittgenstein's) had been killed in a plane crash on May 8th.
Wittgenstein was distraught to the point of being suicidal. He was sent back to the Italian front after his leave and, as a result of the defeat of the Austrian army, he was captured by Allied forces on November 3rd in Trentino. He subsequently spent nine months in an Italian prisoner of war camp.
He returned to his family in Vienna on August 25th 1919, by all accounts physically and mentally spent.
He apparently talked incessantly about suicide, terrifying his sisters and brother Paul.
Wittgenstein decided to do two things:
(1) to enroll in teacher training college as an elementary school teacher.
2) to get rid of his fortune.
In 1914, Wittgenstein's fortune had been providing him with an income of 300,000 Kronen per year, but by 1919 Wittgenstein was worth a great deal more, with a sizable portfolio of investments in the United States and the Netherlands.
He divided it among his siblings, except for Margaret, who had married into wealth, insisting that it not be held in trust for her. His family saw him as ill, and acquiesced.
Philosophical Investigations appeared as a book in 1953 and by the end of the century it was considered an important modern classic.
Philosopher Bertrand Russell described Ludwig Wittgenstein as 'the most perfect example I have ever known of a genius as traditionally conceived; passionate, profound, intense and dominating".
Ludwig Wittgenstein was born in Vienna into one of Europe's richest families, he inherited a large fortune from his father in 1913. He gave some considerable sums to poor artists.
In a period of severe depression after the first World War, Ludwig Wittgenstein then gave away his entire fortune to his brothers and sisters, barring Margaret. Three of his brothers committed suicide with Ludwig Wittgenstein contemplating it too.
Ludwig Wittgenstein left academia several times, serving as an officer on the front line in World War one, where he was decorated a number of times for his courage; teaching in schools in remote Austrian villages, where he encountered controversy for hitting children when they made mistakes in mathematics; and working during World War ll as a hospital porter in London, where he had told patients not to take the drugs they were prescribed, and where he largely managed to keep secret, the fact that he was once one of the world's most famous philosophers. He described Philosophy, however, as "the only work that gave me real satisfaction".
Ludwig Wittgenstein's philosophy is often divided up into an early period, exemplified by the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (often simply called 'Tractatus'), and a later period articulated in the Philosophical Investigations.
The early Wittgenstein was concerned with the logical relationship between propositions and the world, and believed that by providing an account of the logic underlying this relationship, that he had solved all philosophical problems.
The later Wittgenstein rejected many of the assumptions of the 'Tractatus', arguing that the meaning of words is best understood as their use within a given 'language game'.
Ludwig Wittgenstein's influence has been felt in nearly every field of the humanities and social sciences, yet there are diverging interpretations of his thought.
In the words of his friend and colleague, George Henrik von Wright, "He was of the opinion....that his ideas were generally misunderstood and distorted even by those who professed to be his disciples. He doubted he would be better understood in the future". He once said "he felt as though he were writing for people who would think in a different way, breathe a different air of life, from that of present-day-men".
The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, is a very compelling and addictive read, which provides phenomenal stimulation of philosophical thought and reasoning. It also provokes intense and contemplative thought.
As you will read from viewing the PDF of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus by Ludwig Wittgenstein, he starts his book with a series of philosophical statements which read:
71* The world is all that is the case.
71.1 The world is the totality of facts, not of things.
71.11 The world is determined by the facts, and by their being
all the facts.
71.12 For the totality of facts determines what is the case, and
also whatever is not the case.
71.13 The facts in logical space are the world.
71.2 The world divides into facts.
71.21 Each item can be the case or not the case while everything
else remains the same.
72 What is the case—a fact—is the existence of states of
72.01 A state of affairs (a state of things) is a combination of
2.011 It is essential to things that they should be possible
constituents of states of affairs.
72.012 In logic nothing is accidental: if a thing can occur in a state of affairs, the possibility of the state of affairs must be written into the thing itself.
72.0121 It would seem to be a sort of accident, if it turned out that a situation would fit a thing that could already exist entirely on its own.
If things can occur in states of affairs, this possibility must be in them from the beginning. (Nothing in the province of logic can be merely
possible. Logic deals with every possibility and all
possibilities are its facts.)
Just as we are quite unable to imagine spatial objects
outside space or temporal objects outside time, so too
there is no object that we can imagine excluded from the
possibility of combining with others.
If I can imagine objects combined in states of affairs, I
cannot imagine them excluded from the possibility of
72.0122 Things are independent in so far as they can occur in all
possible situations, but this form of independence is a
form of connection with states of affairs, a form of
dependence. (It is impossible for words to appear in two
different rôles: by themselves, and in propositions.)
72.0123 If I know an object I also know all its possible occurrences
in states of affairs.
(every one of these possibilities must be part of the
nature of the object.)
A new possibility cannot be discovered later.
72.01231 If I am to know an object, though I need not know its
external properties, I must know all its internal
The ending statement in the Tractatus, reads...
77 What we cannot speak about we must pass over in
* The decimal numbers assigned to the individual propositions indicate the logical
importance of the propositions, the stress laid on them in my exposition. The
propositions n.1, n.2, n.3, etc. are comments on proposition no. n; the propositions
n.m1, n.m2, etc. are comments on proposition no. n.m; and so on).
In between this, the numbered philosophical statements become a series of mathematical calculus, to argue the philosophical statements and their priority in 'reality' and 'logic'!
The fact that Wittgenstein starts this compelling read by saying:
1* The world is all that is the case.
And then by point 2.012 states:
2.012 In logic nothing is accidental: if a thing can occur in a state of affairs, the possibility of the state of affairs must be written into the thing itself.
And then Wittgenstein's Tractatus ends with:
7 "What we cannot speak about we must pass over in silence"
Such statements provoke some serious and argumentative contemplation. So lets take the statement which goes:
2.012 In logic nothing is accidental: if a thing can occur in a state of affairs, the possibility of the state of affairs must be written into the thing itself.
If there is no such thing as an accident, because the likelihood of it occurring was already written into a state of affairs in the first place, then we could not then, assume that two cars colliding at a crossroads or set of traffic lights, despite the colour changing sequence of them, is an accident! So would it then, for the sake of Wittgenstein's logistics, force us to categorize such an event as a "Road Traffic Event" (RTE) as opposed to a "Road Traffic Accident" (RTA)?!
Meeting someone such as a soul mate in an 'apparently chance or accidental way', would not then be an 'accident' in the true sense of the word! This supports the belief that what happens to us in life is 'karmic'.
So from a religious viewpoint by way of a more 'fatalistic' leaning, we might conclude that the event was 'pre-ordained'!
So in either event, the "World is all, that is the case", and because the totality of a state of affairs are akin to which already existed!
Are you now understanding why this amazing book is a compelling read?!
And if the last statement in the Tractatus reads:
7 What we cannot speak about we must pass over in silence.
Then this has to be Wittgenstein saying "If you cannot agree with my logistics, remain silent, provoking more deep and intense contemplation!
Take another provocative statement in the Tractatus, which reads:
6.52 We feel that even when all possible scientific questions have been answered, the problems of life remain completely untouched.
Of course there are then no questions left, and this itself is the answer.
Try contemplating this statement when you have become totally chilled out after drinking some fine wines!
And yet in this (6.52) statement, Wittgenstein invites us to ponder on the possibility that no matter how much science assumes to offer us solutions to man's questions, that life itself will continue to challenge us, until we have no more questions to ask of science or life itself perhaps?
1.13 The facts in logical space are the world.
In this statement Wittgenstein sums up the world as a logical space full of facts, well so it might be assumed by some readers, but not perhaps others! Hence the contemplative and argumentative nature of philosophy provides considerable stimulus for all, and hopefully an ensuing healthy debate.
As a psychic and remote viewer, I am asked by clients, more often than not, "What Lies Ahead"? Will I definitely meet Mr/Mrs Right on the date I have given them?
In such instances, my mind often casts back to having read the Tractatus, when a question like this is asked, because if nothing is an accident and therefore everything is possibly pre-ordained and so the probability of someone meeting their Mr/Mrs Right may or may not already be there, but if not, and we meet a soul mate by chance, outside of and independent of, any set of pre-ordained state of affairs, we might miss that one opportunity to meet that Mr/Mrs Right, just by deciding not to go to a given or planned location on any given day, changing our mind or our plans at the last minute, but on the other hand you might conclude that in changing your mind about going to that same fatal/karmic location, you would then possibly place yourself in a different location where you were destined to meet that Mr or Mrs Right anyway! How mind bending a thought is that?!
In my final year of training to be a post graduate advanced level classroom trained remote viewer and remote influencer, My trainer, Sgt Lyn Buchanan, blew me away with a statement he made.
I had asked Lyn, whilst driving him to his hotel after the days lessons, if he had ever seen the film, "The Others" starring Eric Sykes and Nicole Kidman, it was a film about different generations of ghosts who all co-existed in an old and remote mansion during the war, it turned out that none of these generations knew they were deceased but they were. It was a film of many twists and very gripping throughout. Lyn said he had not seen this film and that it sounded interesting before blowing me away by saying "How do you know that you are not already in the future, remote viewing yourself in the past?!". How mind bending a thought is that?! This qualified what Wittgenstein had said about things only happening because they were already written into the thing itself! But then some time later I started to expand on this .....
When I do psychic readings for people, I am asked to look into the future ahead of the client, so in line with Wittgenstein's philosophy and logic, surely then, I would not be able to foresee what has not already occurred?! So are we effectively meeting ourselves coming back as with science?!
Does philosophy tie you up in mental knots? Mmmmm perhaps so!
Philosophy steers you to think intensely and to explore new horizons of logic.
This is why the Tractatus makes for a compelling read, because it invites you into far deeper logistical contemplation and bends your mind to such an extent that your viewpoint on life in a more logical sense will never be the same again.
Karma is a wonderful concept and metaphysically speaking, it is a vehicle which will take you on a wondrous journey of deep thinking, toward a much better and deeper understanding of not only life, if in the right frame of mind, but also into the laws of karma in relation to logic.
Philosophy is a sort of metaphysics for the mind, a mind Gymnasium!
4.112 Philosophy aims at the logical clarification of thoughts.
Philosophy is not a body of doctrine but an activity.
A philosophical work consists essentially of elucidations.
Philosophy does not result in ‘philosophical propositions’, but rather in the clarification of propositions.
Without philosophy thoughts are, as it were, cloudy and indistinct: its task is to make them clear and to give them sharp boundaries.
In the above statement Wittgenstein nicely sums up the concept of philosophy.
The mind bending nature of the Tractatus also propels you into taking little for granted, and moreover, to examine reason in more logistical terms, as to why events occur and what vehicle they are providing you with, in order to propel you forward and why this is so!
You take one philosophical statement and it leads you to another and on to another, with you for the duration, compelled to read on, in order to see what the end of the line of thought will offer, often with the unexpected twist you will find yourself drawing from the experience, perhaps leading to a totally different conclusion to that of others, hence in the words of Wittgenstein's friend and colleague, George Henrik von Wright, Wittgenstein who was quoted as saying:
"He was of the opinion....that his ideas were generally misunderstood and distorted even by those who professed to be his disciples.
He doubted he would be better understood in the future.
He once said he felt as though he were writing for people who would think in a different way, breathe a different air of life, from that of present-day-men".
In short, a writer of philosophical works may well be writing something which is then open to a more individualistic interpretation, as opposed to writing a 'one for all' or 'one size fits all, series of philosophical statements.
Perhaps then, a writer of philosophy writes very much for the 'individual' as opposed to the masses who, all the same, read their work! Now isn't that another mind bending thought?! A parallel to this can be found when several people view the same piece of modern or abstract art, where each person will undoubtedly see something different in the same piece of work!
There have been several versions of the 'Tractatus' published, each differing in their interpretation of it, courtesy of the reviewer, and just to add to the complexity of this amazing historical work.
Here is another version of the same book:
Click on the image below to view the 'Gutenberg' Version of the 'Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus'
Click on the above image to view
the 'Gutenberg' Version of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
Differing from the above version the same numbered statements now read:
1 The world is everything that is the case.
1.1 The world is the totality of facts, not of things.
1.11 The world is determined by the facts, and by these being all the
1.12 For the totality of facts determines both what is the case, and
also all that is not the case.
1.13 The facts in logical space are the world.
1.2 The world divides into facts.
1.21 Any one can either be the case or not be the case, and everything
else remain the same.
2 What is the case, the fact, is the existence of atomic facts.
2.01 An atomic fact is a combination of objects (entities, things).
2.011 It is essential to a thing that it can be a constituent part of an
2.012 In logic nothing is accidental: if a thing can occur in an atomic
fact the possibility of that atomic fact must already be prejudged
in the thing.
2.0121 It would, so to speak, appear as an accident, when to a thing
that could exist alone on its own account, subsequently a state
of affairs could be made to fit.
If things can occur in atomic facts, this possibility must already
lie in them.
(A logical entity cannot be merely possible. Logic treats of
every possibility, and all possibilities are its facts.)
Just as we cannot think of spatial objects at all apart from
space, or temporal objects apart from time, so we cannot think
of any object apart from the possibility of its connection with
If I can think of an object in the context of an atomic fact,
I cannot think of it apart from the possibility of this context.
2.0122 The thing is independent, in so far as it can occur in all possible
circumstances, but this form of independence is a form of
connection with the atomic fact, a form of dependence. (It is
impossible for words to occur in two different ways, alone and
in the proposition.)
2.0123 If I know an object, then I also know all the possibilities of its
occurrence in atomic facts.
(every such possibility must lie in the nature of the object.)
A new possibility cannot subsequently be found.
2.01231 In order to know an object, I must know not its external but all
its internal qualities.
7 Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent.
6.52 We feel that even if all possible scientific questions be answered,
the problems of life have still not been touched at all. Of course
there is then no question left, and just this is the answer.
Note: the phraseology is different. The use of the word 'atomic' is used, and the ending statement reads differently but effectively says the same!
We have two reviewers in action here, perhaps differing in their translation of Wittgenstein's original German language version which is contained in the Gutenberg version (beneath the English version). But the slant and ambiance is also different in some ways too, which may lead to a differing conclusion of the Tractatus and its statements, all effectively adding to it's mind bending nature and fascination!
Of course the influences of others which we all encounter in our lives, also shapes our view of the world and in turn our philosophical stance.
Otto Weininger Spring 1903
Ludwig Wittgenstein was influenced by Otto Weininger - Austrian philosopher Otto Weininger (1880–1903)
While a student at the Realschule, Wittgenstein was influenced by Austrian philosopher Otto Weininger's 1903 book 'Geschlecht und Charakter' (Sex and Character). Weininger (1880–1903), who was also Jewish, argued that the concepts male and female exist only as Platonic forms, and that Jews tend to embody the platonic femininity. Whereas men are basically rational, women operate only at the level of their emotions and sexual organs.
Jews, Weininger argued, are similar, in that they are saturated with femininity, with no sense of right and wrong, and no soul. Weininger argues that man must choose between his masculine and feminine sides, consciousness and unconsciousness, platonic love and sexuality.
Love and sexual desire stand in contradiction, and love between a woman and a man is therefore doomed to misery or immorality.
The only life worth living is the spiritual one, to live as a woman or a Jew means one has no right to live at all; the choice is genius or death.
Weininger committed suicide, shooting himself in 1903, shortly after publishing the book.
Many years later, as a professor at Cambridge, Wittgenstein distributed copies of Weininger's book to his bemused academic colleagues.
He said that Weininger's arguments were wrong, but that it was the way in which they were wrong that was interesting.
He dominated the society and stopped attending entirely in the early 1930's after complaints that he gave no one else a chance to speak!
The club became infamous within popular philosophy because of a meeting on 25th October 1946 at Richard Braithwaite's rooms in King's, where Karl Popper, another Viennese philosopher, had been invited as the guest speaker.
Popper's paper was "Are there philosophical problems?", in which he struck up a position against Wittgenstein's, contending that problems in philosophy are real, and not just by way of linguistic puzzles as Wittgenstein had argued.
Accounts vary as to what happened next, but Wittgenstein apparently started waving a hot poker, demanding that Popper give him an example of a moral rule.
Popper offered one — "Not to threaten visiting speakers with pokers" — at which point Russell told Wittgenstein he had misunderstood and Wittgenstein left!
Popper maintained that Wittgenstein had 'stormed out', but it had become accepted practice for him to leave early (because of his aforementioned ability to dominate discussion). It was the only time the philosophers, three of the most eminent in the world, were ever in the same room together.
The minutes record, that the meeting was "charged to an unusual degree with a spirit of controversy".
Bertrand Russell in 1907
John Maynard Keynes also invited Wittgenstein to join the Cambridge Apostles, an elite secret society formed in 1820, which both Russell and G. E. Moore had joined as students, but Wittgenstein did not enjoy it and attended infrequently.
Russell had been worried that Wittgenstein would not appreciate the group's rather un-seriousness, style of humour, or the fact that the members were in love with one another.
Wittgenstein was admitted in 1912 but resigned almost immediately because he could not tolerate the level of the discussion on the Hearth Rug; they took him back though, in the 1920's, when he returned to Cambridge. (He also had trouble tolerating the discussions in the Moral Sciences Club).
The Vienna Circle
The Tractatus was now the subject of much debate amongst philosophers, and Wittgenstein was a figure of increasing international fame. In particular, in a discussion group of philosophers, scientists and mathematicians, known as the Vienna Circle, who had built up largely as a result of the inspiration they had been given by reading the Tractatus. From 1926, with the members of the Vienna Circle, Wittgenstein would take part in many discussions.
However, during these discussions, it soon became evident that Wittgenstein held a different attitude towards philosophy than the members of the Vienna Circle for whom his work had inspired. For example, during meetings of the Vienna Circle, he would express his disagreement with the group's misreading of his work by turning his back to them and reading poetry aloud.
In his autobiography, Rudolf Carnap describes Wittgenstein as the thinker who gave him the greatest inspiration. However, he also wrote that "there was a striking difference between Wittgenstein's attitude toward philosophical problems and that of Schlick and myself. Our attitude toward philosophical problems was not very different from that which scientists have toward their problems." As for Wittgenstein:
Wittgenstein's point of view and his attitude toward people and problems, even theoretical problems, were much more similar to those of a creative artist than to those of a scientist; one might almost say, similar to those of a religious prophet or a seer...
When sometimes after a prolonged arduous effort, Wittgenstein's answers came forth, his statements stood before us like newly created pieces of art or a divine revelation...the impression he made on us was as if insight came to him as through divine inspiration, so that we could not help feeling that any sober rational comment of analysis of it would be a profanation.
"Death is not an event in life: we do not live to experience death.
If we take eternity to mean not 'infinite temporal duration' but 'timelessness', then 'eternal life' belongs to those who live in the 'present'.
Our life has no end in the way in which our visual field has no limits." — Wittgenstein, Tractatus, 6.431.... Now contemplate that after a long day at work whilst enjoying several glasses of fine wine!
The plaque at Storey's End, 76 Storey's Way, Cambridge, where Wittgenstein died
Wittgenstein began work on his final manuscript, MS 177, on 25 April 1951. It was his 62nd birthday on 26 April. He went for a walk the next afternoon, and wrote his last entry that day, 27 April.
That evening, he became very ill; and when his doctor told him he might live only a few days, he reportedly replied, "Good!"
Joan Bevan (the wife of Wittgenstein's Doctor) stayed with him throughout that night, and just before losing consciousness for the last time on 28 April, Wittgenstein told her: "Tell them I've had a wonderful life".Norman Malcolm describes this as a "strangely moving utterance". Wittgenstein died from Prostate Cancer.
Wittgenstein with reference to death can be quoted as saying:
“Death is not an event in life: we do not live to experience death. If we take eternity to mean not infinite temporal duration but timelessness, then eternal life belongs to those who live in the present. Our life has no end in the way in which our visual field has no limits.”
So Wittgenstein even philosophized about death itself - 'making his work as immortal as himself' perhaps?!
Four of Wittgenstein's former students arrived at his bedside — Ben Richards, Elizabeth Anscombe, Yorick Smythies, and Maurice O'Connor Drury. Anscombe and Smythies were Catholics; and, at the latter's request, a Dominican friar, Father Conrad Pepler, also attended.
They were at first, unsure what Wittgenstein would have wanted, but then remembered he had said he hoped his Catholic friends would pray for him, so they did, and he was pronounced dead shortly afterwards.
Wittgenstein was given a Catholic burial at Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge. Drury later said he had been troubled ever since, about whether that was the right thing to do.
On his religious views, Wittgenstein was said to be greatly interested in Catholicism and was sympathetic to it.
However, he did not consider himself to be a Catholic!
According to Norman Malcolm, Wittgenstein saw Catholicism to be more a way of life rather than as a set of beliefs which he personally held, considering that he did not accept any religious faith.
Wittgenstein was said to be agnostic, in a qualified sense, in the last years of his life.
Illustration of a 'duck rabbit', discussed in the
Philosophical Investigations, section XI
Main articles: Philosophical Investigations, Language-game and Private language argument
Illustration of a "Duckrabbit", discussed in the Philosophical Investigations, section XI, part II
To quote Wikipedia ....
"Seeing that vs. seeing as
In addition to ambiguous sentences, Wittgenstein discussed figures that can be seen and understood in two different ways. Often one can see something in a straightforward way — seeing that it is a rabbit, perhaps. But, at other times, one notices a particular aspect — seeing it as something. An example Wittgenstein uses is the "duckrabbit", an ambiguous image that can be seen as either a duck or a rabbit. When one looks at the duck-rabbit and sees a rabbit, one is not interpreting the picture as a rabbit, but rather reporting what one sees. One just sees the picture as a rabbit. But what occurs when one sees it first as a duck, then as a rabbit? As the gnomic remarks in the Investigations indicate, Wittgenstein isn't sure. However, he is sure that it could not be the case that the external world stays the same while an 'internal' cognitive change takes place".
Reference text: Wikipedia: "Philosophical_Investigations"
Wittgenstein's "The Blue Book", is a set of notes which Wittgenstein dictated to his class at Cambridge in 1933–1934, it contains the seeds of his later thoughts on language, and is widely read as a turning-point in his philosophy of language.
Philosophical Investigations was published in two parts in 1953.
Most of Part I was ready for printing in 1946, but Wittgenstein withdrew the manuscript from his publisher.
The shorter Part II was added by his editors, Elizabeth Anscombe and Rush Rhees.
Wittgenstein asks the reader to think of language as a multiplicity of language-games within which parts of language develop and function. He argues that 'philosophical problems are bewitchments that arise from philosophers' misguided attempts to consider the meaning of words independently of their context, usage, and grammar, what he called "language gone on holiday!".
According to Wittgenstein, philosophical problems arise when language is forced from its proper home into a metaphysical environment, where all of the familiar and necessary landmarks and contextual clues are removed.
Wittgenstein describes this metaphysical environment as like being on frictionless ice: where the conditions are apparently perfect for a philosophically and logically perfect language. All philosophical problems can be solved without the muddying effects of everyday contexts; but where, precisely because of the lack of friction, language can in fact, do no work at all.
Wittgenstein argues that philosophers must leave the frictionless ice and return to the "rough ground" of ordinary language in use.
Much of the Investigations consists of examples of how the first false steps can be avoided, so that philosophical problems are dissolved, rather than solved: "the clarity we are aiming at is indeed complete clarity. But this simply means that the philosophical problems should completely disappear."
Wittgenstein left a voluminous archive of unpublished papers, including 83 manuscripts, 46 typescripts and 11 dictations, amounting to an estimated 20,000 pages. Choosing among repeated drafts, revisions, corrections and loose notes, editorial work has found nearly one third of the total to be suitable for print.
An Internet facility hosted at the University of Bergen allows one to access images of almost all the material and to search the available transcriptions.
In 2011 two new boxes of Wittgenstein papers were found.
Philosophical Investigations were the only nearly finished project and the book was published in 1953.
In 1999, a survey among American university and college teachers ranked the 'Investigations' as the most important book of 20th-century philosophy, standing out as "the one crossover masterpiece in twentieth-century philosophy, appealing across diverse specializations and philosophical orientations".
The 'Investigations' were also ranked 54th on a list of most influential twentieth-century works in cognitive science by the University of Minnesota's Center for Cognitive Sciences.
Peter Hacker, known for his detailed exegesis of the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein, argues that Wittgenstein's influence on 20th century analytic philosophy can be attributed to his early influence on the Vienna Circle and later influence on the Oxford 'ordinary language' school and Cambridge philosophers.
The Tractatus is all - That is the case!
I hope you have enjoyed a stimulating, inspiring and thought provoking read.
Thanks for reading. Wittgenstein is one of my all time favorite philosophers and the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is one of my favorite books.
Bright positive blessings,
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(1) Full name (forename and surname)(ie. George Clooney).
(2) Date of birth (ie. 6th June 1976)
(3) Time of birth and please state Am or Pm) (if known) (ie. 11.30 pm, 2.15 am etc)
(4) Place of birth (to the nearest major town or city and also the country of birth) (ie. London, England, York England etc.
The time and place of birth are what determines what your ascendant or rising sign is, this is very important in all astrological calculations as you will read further down this page.
If you don't know your true time of birth you can find this out by doing what is known as a birth time rectification and you can do this for free, on line by going to:
Just a few hours out with the time of birth for Synastry (astrological love compatibility charts) can mean the difference between good compatibility and no compatibility, astrology is a specific science and the accuracy of birth data really is, mission critical!
Accuracy is of paramount importance, because your life and future depend upon it. Kaz is a perfectionist and likes to ensure you receive the best possible help, advice, support and excellent value for your money. If something is worth doing then it is worth doing properly or not at all, as far as Kaz is concerned (but of course Kaz is a Virgo!).
Call Kaz now for the reading of your life! Kaz promises you that you will be so glad you did!